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30a. European immigrants tried early to establish roads to allow better travel and communication as people left for new areas. And, the restless movement began almost immediately. Early roads were through cleared area where logs helped handle wet areas. The majority of those who went west did the journey by land where early travelers were pioneering the trail. Several trails became available depending upon the destination.1 To the relief of many, rail travel was beginning to be in the west by the late 1800s. Rivers and other natural features added to the difficulty. But, the distances were immense, as well, requiring months of commitment to the hard work.2

Footnotes:
1. See 3 Trails.
2. See Pre-Civil War, San Antonio to San Diego.

30b. Texas which was part of Mexico and California which was part of New Spain can be used as a transportation example. An overland mail route had an established connection between San Antonio TX and San Diego CA. In today's modern world, there are interstate highways that allow the trip to be done in 22 hours. This journey took over a month using mules and wagons.1

Footnotes:
1. See Pre-Civil-War, San Antonio to San Diego.
30c. With the U.S. expanding via Manifest Destiny, there was more space to cover. Yet, ingenuity helped. By the Civil War era, coach travel allowed regular runs between St Louis MO and San Francisco CA which was the distance of 3,000 miles in order to avoid difficult terrain. The trip took almost 600 daylight hours one-way. Mark Twain wrote about the trip that he took as a young man. In today's modern world, there are several interstate highways that can be used which shorten the journey to 2,000 miles which can be covered in two days, easily.1

Footnotes:
1. See Pre-Civil-War, San Antonio to San Diego.
29. Once Lewis & Clark made their report, the population began to move west in stages that took well over a century. The fur trade was one early activity which usually dealt with single men dealing with the American Indian.1 But, there were other activities. The U.S. Army established itself very early. As well, important tasks like surveying were accomplished. St. Louis MO was an important area through this process.2
 
Footnotes:
1. See Trapper, Trader, Rancher.
2. See Fort Bell Fontaine.

28. For the 400th, lots of Massachusetts towns will celebrate for almost a century. By 1775, the thirteen colonies had an estimated population of 2.5 million. 1 The first census for the U.S. in 1790 counted almost 4.0 million souls. At that time, the original colonies had expanded to seventeen states and territories.2 Through time, there would be many New England influences all over the western part of the U.S.
 
Footnotes:
1. See Upcoming celebrations.
2. See 1790 U.S. Census.

27a. Two hundred years ago, the U.S. was in the early process of figuring out how to use what it got with the Louisiana Purchase.1 By 1820, new states in the southern part were Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Missouri. Northern states were Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. This frontier condition lasted for a century.2

Footnotes:
1. See All that Louisiana brought.
2. See Frontier century.
27b. In 1820, besides the thirteen original States, there were six new southern and three new northern States which came from the Louisiana Purchase.1 There were the three Territories of Arkansas, Michigan, and the unorganized area that bordered the Oregon Country of Great Britain and the Spanish possessions along the west coast and the southern interior. The frontier condition of figuring things out lasted for a century.2
 
Footnotes:
1. See All that Louisiana brought.
2. See Frontier century.

26. Rivers were a huge influence in the frontier experience and will be included as we look at life over the centuries since the Cape Ann experience.1 The Ohio River got New Englanders down to the Mississippi River.2 The Missouri supplied one means for heading west, though the trails were the key means albeit with rivers as major obstacles. Those heading west out of southern New England may have used the Cumberland Gap. The 200th looks at the frontier century.

Footnotes:
1. See Rivers and more.
2. See Ohio River.
3. See Cumberland Gap.
25. The bustling 1900s gave us the aviation age. Amelia Earhart is an example of a New England export.1 She helped test the early models of the parachute. Her disappearance still remains a mystery, though what was once known as Gardner Island may have provided clues. Her husband, George P. Putnam,was of an early Essex County, MA family. Later in the 1900s, we saw the rise of computer technology which will be a focus going forward.2

Footnotes:
1. See Amelia Earhart.
2. See Technology's influences.

24. The 400ths will get attention.1 There are many towns in MA, all with tales of their origins and originators. However, we will look simultaneously over the 400th, 300th, 250th, 200th, and 100th.2 The 250th is being celebrated by the Daughters and the Sons of the American Revolution.3 The 200th looks at the frontier century which can be a research focal without limit, while the 100th was the bustling early 1900s.

Footnotes:
1. See 400ths.
2. See Upcoming celebrations.
3. See In the small.

23. Gardner research covers, in part, the history of the U.S. from the perspective of families starting from the early arrivals1 and coming forward to about a hundred years ago. Of late, we have started to look at British families who are the origins of our immigrants. Too, though, some families returned to the old country and, currently, have descendants interested in the upcoming celebrations, such as the 400th.2

Footnotes:
1. See Queen Anne.
2. See American 100s.
22. Evidently, the Puritans did not like sports or other diversionary activity. Now, the U.S. has its Super Bowl, with number L5 (55) being played on 7 Feb 2021.One team is from Kansas City, MO; the other is from Tampa Bay, FL. The KC quarterback, Patrick Mahomes,1 was recently featured in a blog post by the NEHGS. Patrick's ancestry shows a relationship with four Presidents: Hayes, Coolidge, Bush 43, and Bush 45.2

Footnotes:
1. See Super Bowl (TGS, Inc.).
2. See Super Bowl surprise (NEHGS). 
21. Nantucket Island1 was populated by families from the Massachusetts Colony. Some of the names are: Coffin, Macy, Folger, and more. John and Richard Gardner2 were there, too. An American tinkerer (William Coffin Coleman) has names in his pedigree that suggests a Nantucket ancestry. This is some of the type of work that Gardner Research does.  

Footnotes:
1. See Historic Nantucket.
2. See John and Richard (and Thomas).
20. John Balch1 was at Cape Ann2 with Thomas and Margaret Gardner. His son, Benjamin, married Sarah Gardner,3 daughter of Thomas and Margaret. One of their many descendants won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1946.4 Emily Greene Balch collaborated with Jane Addams as leaders of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.5 

Footnotes:
1. See
John Balch - Wikitree.
2. See
Cape Ann, Retrospective.
3. See Sarah (Gardner) Balch.
4. See List of female Nobel laureates.
5. See Emily Greene Balch.
19. As we look at the history of the U.S. from the perspective of New England, we can make note that the 5th generation bore the brunt of the U.S. start, though the 4th generation was involved, too, and provided a lot of the leadership.1 It was the 6th generation that carried the enthusiasm forward resulting in a huge expansion in territory and wealth creation.2 Those who enjoyed the benefits of this were the 7th generation.3

Footnotes:
1. See 5th generation.
2. See 6th generation.
3. See 7th generation.

18. We see the 400th observance of the arrival of the Mayflower unfolding this year.1 A hundred years ago, the 300th was the theme. There was a pageant in Salem, MA which depicted a few historical events.2 Coming up in 2026, there will be a 250th related to the American Revolution.3 At the same time, we can look at the 200th of the western expansion.

Footnotes:
1. See About generations.
2. See Salem Pageant.
3. See American celebrations.
17. A "Massachusetts Magazine" started (in Boston, 1789-1796) after the Revolution.1 Founded by Isaiah Thomas, it published Benjamin Franklin, Judith Sargent Murray and others. Dr. Frank and friends resurrected this magazine as "The Massachusetts Magazine" which published (in Salem) from 1908 to 1918.2 There were regular columns: Pilgrims and Planters; Regimental History (Siege of Boston); Family Genealogies (Lucie M. Gardner taking over for Sidney Perley).

Footnotes:
1. See Massachusetts Magazine (1700s).
2. See The Massachusetts Magazine (1900s).
16. The effort led by Thomas Gardner was a commercial attempt by the Dorchester Company of southwest England. It was a first effort as the Plymouth experience was not commercial in nature. There have been several researchers over the centuries who looked into this matter. One hundred years ago, Frances Rose-Troup1 worked in England to document the attempt. Her results were published in the US. We will look further at her work plus that of several others.2

Footnotes:
1. See Frances Rose-Troup.
2. See History of New England.
15a. Children: Thomas, George, Richard, John, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Miriam, Seeth.
    Thomas Gardner (c. 1620s), born in England, he came to Cape Ann with his folks. Thomas (and brother John) had a good reputation on Nantucket. They were noted to have been educated which did not come from Harvard. The best guess? Their parents, especially Margaret.1
    George Gardner (c. 1620s), born in England, he came to Cape Ann with his folks. The story of George and his family is told in the 1933 book by Frank A. Gardner, M.S. titled Gardner Memorial 2
Footnotes:
1. See Thomas Gardner.
2. See George Gardner.
15b. Children: Thomas, George, Richard, John, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Miriam, Seeth.
    Richard Gardner (c. 1620s), born in England or at Cape Ann, was with his parents in Salem (Naumkeag); later, he moved to Nantucket, with his brother John. He married Sarah Shattuck.1 W.C. Folger wrote: The Gardner family have always been reckoned among the First Families of the Island. Richard and Capt. John, exercised much influence in the community here while they lived and they died respected.2
    Seeth Gardner (c. 1630s) was born in Salem and married 1) Joshua Conant who was the son of Roger Conant. Their son married a daughter of Richard More. When Joshua died, she married 2) John Grafton. One of their descendants is John Albion Andrew who was the 25th Governor of Massachusetts (1861-1866).3
Footnotes:
1. See William Shattuck @ wargs.
2. See Richard and John (and Thomas).
3. See Seeth Gardner.
14a. Children: Thomas, George,Richard, John, Sarah, Samuel,Joseph, Miriam,Seeth.
    Samuel Gardner (c. 1620s), born in Salem, has many mentions in the town's records with regard to civic and church duties. His wife, Mary White, was a step-sibling of the Corwins of Witch Trial infamy. Samuel owned the land that included the Gardner burial plot. Dr. Frank is his descendant.
    Miriam Gardner (c. 1630s) was bornin Salem and married John Hill who was born in Bristol, England. John Hill owned land in Salem and Beverly.1 
Footnotes:
1. See Sidney Perley - History of Salem.
14b. Children: Thomas, George, Richard, John, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Miriam, Seeth. 
13a. Children: Thomas, George, Richard, John, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Miriam, Seeth. Footnotes:
1. See John Gardner and the Merrimack River.
13b. Of the nine children of Thomas Gardner, and Margaret Fryer,1eight had progeny. The first four got through their first year and beyond.2 Then, after 1627, the family was in the Naukeag area (which became Salem).3 Their children were Thomas, George, Richard, John, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph4, Miriam, Seeth.

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective
2. See The 1st year.
3. See Five generations.
4. Joseph Gardner and Ann Downing had no children.
12. Thomas Gardner was an Overseer of the "old planters" party of the Dorchester Company that landed, in 1623/24 at Cape Ann, to form a colony at, what is now known as, Gloucester. Thomas  has been considered by some as the 1st Governor of Massachusetts,1 due to his being in authority in the first settlement that became the Massachusetts Bay Colony (which later subsumed the Plymouth Colony). Several parties were in the crew led by Thomas. Our goal is to research these individuals and their families. Like Thomas, some had their wives with them.

Footnotes:
1. See 1st Governor.
11a. The purpose of the Society1 can be summarized as follows:
    (a) to establish and to maintain a persistent presence in order to honor the accomplishments of the Cape Ann party (1623/24)2 lead by Thomas Gardner; to promote, and to sponsor, scholarly research of a cultural, biographical, historical and genealogical nature, with an emphasis on, but not limited to, the origins and lives of New England immigrants; to provide means for, and to foster, discussion, and dissemination of, information on those themes; to publish materials periodically and as necessary;
    (b) ...; and (c) ...
Footnotes:
1. Website: Gardner's Beacon, Annals/Research
2. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
11b. The purpose of the Society1 can be summarized as follows:
    (a) ...; (b) to encourage participation by, and interaction of, Thomas Gardner descendants through Society membership; to extend the published works of Frank A. Gardner MD (using modern publication means); to establish, and to document, views based upon timeline date obtained from descendants and other studies; and
    (c) to sponsor the scholastic efforts of men, women, and children in the context of a continuing educational process.2
Footnotes:
1. Website: Gardner's Beacon, Annals/Research
2. Incorporation, Thomas Gardner Society, Inc.
10. One focus of the Society is the Cape Ann crew of Thomas Gardner1 that arrived in the 1623/24 time frame. Prior to that, there were other sites with activity: Plymouth (1620), Provincetown (1620), and Weymouth (1622).2 After Gloucester (Cape Ann), we can list Chelsea (1624), Quincy (1625), Salem (1626), Charleston (1628), Lynn (1629), Saugus (1629), Manchester-by-the-Sea (1629), and Marblehead (1629).3 All of these were prior to the arrival of John Winthrop in 1630.4 In 2008, Executive Order No. 502 established a Commission to plan the commerative activities.5 A recent meeting in Salem at the Hawthorne Hotel brought together the planners from several of the cities.6

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
2. See Massachusetts 400.
3. See Timeline of settlement.
4. See John Winthrop.
5. See Massachusetts Executive Orders.
6. See Gloucester 400
9a. Prior to the arrival of the Cape Ann crew led by Thomas Gardner1 in the 1623/24 time frame, there had been activity in the region. Newfoundland had already been established. There was the Plymouth colony. An attempt had been made at Sagadahoc in modern Maine before that.2 Hence, there were local fishermen. Cape Ann became a center for fish curing. However, there were also crews coming from England. They would spend a couple of months or so in crossing the Atlantic. Then, they would fish. And, dry their fish in preparation for the return trip.

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
2. See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. III, No. 3.
9b. "Every March small ships of between thirty and eight tons, manned by crews of twenty to forty men and boys ... carried salt, provisions, equipment. Brought material for their boats. Took two months to get here. Put their boats together and fished. Split the work between fishing and salting. Filled the hold and returned in autumn. Crews were gathered yearly by the master. Principally young, fifteen to twenty-five years old. Many were trying to get money to get established in their home area."1

Footnotes:
1. See True stories.
9c. The idea behind the Dorchester Company created by Rev. John White1 was to have a settlement with permanent residents who would ship produce (fish and vegetable) back to the old country. Cape Ann was a rocky cape and was not suitable for farming, as the crew discovered.2

Footnotes:
1. See Dorchester Company.
2. See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. IV, No. 1.
8a. The Cape Ann crew led by Thomas Gardner1 began a commercial effort in the 1623/24 time frame. This effort had been coordinated by Rev. John White2 and was to farm sufficiently to send produce back to England. The plan also was to fish through the good seasons and to send back dried fish. In prior years, the round-trip requirement in one year cut down the fishing time. In reality, it proved harder to fish than expected. There had been many years of prior fishing to give New England a good reputation. Too, the soil was found to not be suitable for farming. 

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
2. See Gardner and Conant families.
8b. Further south, the Mayflower experience at Plymouth demonstrated the difficulties that faced any newcomers. The focus at Cape Ann moved to Naumkeag which allowed for more success, with some glowing reports being sent back to England.1 By 1630, there was enough interest generated for John Winthrop2 to lead a group of ships packed with settlers. Hence started the Puritan Great Migration.3 We are 400 years past this event and will be looking across that time span at the families and their fifteen some generations of involvement with the 'American Dream.'4

Footnotes:
1. See Massey's Cove.
2. See (Not) far from idyllic.
3. See Great migration.
4. See Fifteen generations.

7a. Thomas Gardner1 and crew came to Cape Ann in 1623/24 for the purpose of establishing a colony. In the area where they landed, there had been prior activity. One early settlement attempt that was related to the Popham colony did not pan out.2 The Plymouth crew from the Mayflower arrived in 1620 and had ventured into the area.3 They used Cape Ann for fish drying. A lot has been written about the early times. It was Rev. Hubbard who first mentioned Thomas Gardner and his role.4

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
2. See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. III, No. 3.
3. See History of Cape Ann.
4. See History of New England.
7b. Salem official records have a lot of material as do other towns in Essex County. One person who went through these records and transcribed the material was Sidney Perley.1 His work has been of tremendous importance to Gardner Research that has an on-going set of tasks related to documenting the early, and subsequent, eras as well as the people involved in establishment of the framework for the U.S.2

Footnotes:
1. See Sidney's Antiquarian.
2. See
Gardners and Gardners.
6a. When Thomas Gardner1 and crew came to Cape Ann in 1623/24 and started their effort at establishing a colony, they found out quickly that the terrain was not suitable for farming and that the local waters did not produce much fish. The crew was successful, though, at maintaining their health by producing enough for their small crew.2 

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
2. See No shadow over Thomas.
6b. While England expected Roger Conant who came in 1625 to improve matters, this was not to be. Roger got permission to move to Naumkeag. It is thought that the group made landfall near Massey's Cove.1 Thomas is not recorded as going to Naumkeag. What happened? Most likely, he and Margaret stayed at Cape Ann with their kids in the house.2 When John Endicott came a little later, he saw them enjoying the house. It was torn down and moved over to what was then Salem (renaming of Naumkeag) on orders of John.3

Footnotes:
1. See Massey's Cove.
2. See Where was Thomas?
3. See (Not) far from idyllic.
5a. Thomas Gardner1 came to Cape Ann in 1623/24 as an Overseer for a commercial effort that was to ship food back to England. The other person in charge was John Tylly2 who had responsibility for the fishing. Neither of the efforts were successful for reasons that we will study. Roger Conant was sent to Cape Ann to see if he could improve the situation but did not.3

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
2. See John Tylly.
3. See Gardner and Conant Families.
5b. A decision was made to move to a new area, called Naumkeag, which became Salem.1 When the 300th anniversary was celebrated, a pageant was held in the area. Several Salem families participated.2 With the 400th coming up, we have several research areas to attend to. One goal is to get Thomas, and Margaret, more attention. Hence, we will research the early day quite thoroughly.3 Oh yes, on the shipping of foodstuff? It did not take long before New England was a prime exporter.

Footnotes:
1. See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. II, No. 6.
2. See Pageant of Salem.
3. See Gardner's bridge.
4a. The crew led by Thomas Gardner1 came into Cape Ann in 1623/24 with some provisions, however they were on their own. Since the colony was to provide produce and fish, their tools were for that purpose. Cape Ann was renowned for its fishing.2 Hence, fishing crews from Plymouth had built structures for drying fish in the area as they had regularly visited the spot. The Dorchester crew brought the material for building a house.3

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann, 1623
2. See Cape Ann, Retrospective.
3. See Thomas' house.
4b. Other structures put up the first year would have been the New England wigwam1 which was an adaptation of the one built by natives. It had an internal fireplace. Massachusetts is fairly far north and can have severe winters. In 1607, a party landed in what is now Maine at Popham and survived a winter with no casualties.2 Actually, they built a sea-going vessel while there that they sailed to Virginia. Ingenuity was not lacking. Not long after the successful establishment in the Salem area where the Cape Ann party moved in 1626, more people began arriving than resources could handle.

Footnotes:
1. See The 1st Year.
2. See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. III, No. 3.
3a. Thomas Gardner and Margaret Fryer Gardner1 arrived, with other families, at Cape Ann in 1623/24 for the purpose of establishing a colony whose goal was to ship foodstuff back to England.2 Our Society studies each of the families, as well as concentrating on Thomas and Margaret who had nine children all of whom had offspring except for Joseph who died in the Peaquot war.3
 
Footnotes:
1. See Margaret, anew.
2. See Cape Ann, 1623.
3. See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. II, No. 1.
3b. We are working on documenting the generations after Thomas and Margaret until 1900. Besides the genealogy, we have a cultural and historic focus in our work. Of their children, one son, Samuel, had a descendant who did research to support the 300th celebration that occurred 100 years ago.1 Dr. Frank was an active physician in the Salem, MA area. Too, he was a Major and Surgeon with the Salem Light Infantry. Also, Dr. Frank wrote two books on Gardner genealogy and published The Massachusetts Magazine for which he wrote monographs about the Siege of Boston.2

Footnotes:
1. See Dr. Frank A. Gardner.
2. See Regimental History Series, background.
2a. Cape Cod was visited and named as early as 1606 because of the plentiful fish found in the region. Settlement attempts were made at several points, from Maine (Popham Colony) down, with Virginia being a well-known survivor. Jamestown was founded in 1607. While Newfoundland found success very early, in 1588, there were other attempts. The effort at Roanoke Colony (North Carolina) ended in tragedy in the 1580s.

Footnotes:
1. See Cape Ann retrospective.
2. See Plus or minus the arrival.
2b. John Cabot's1 early exploration for the English is an example. Cape Cod was visited and named as early as 1606 because of the plentiful fish found in the region. Settlement attempts were made at several points, from Maine (Popham Colony) down, with Virginia being a well-known survivor. Jamestown was founded in 1607. While Newfoundland found success very early, in 1588, there were other attempts. The effort at Roanoke Colony (North Carolina) ended in tragedy in the 1580s.

Footnotes:
1.See Gardner's Beacon, Vol. III, No. 1.
1a. Thomas Gardner was an Overseer of the "old planters party of the Dorchester Company that landed, in 1624 at Cape Ann, to form a colony. The party landed at, what is now known as, Gloucester. Thomas is considered by some as the 1st Governor of Massachusetts,1 due to his being in authority in the first settlement that became the Massachusetts Bay Colony (which later subsumed the Plymouth Colony). Thomas, and his wife, Margaret Fryer,2,3 had nine children and many descendants.

Footnotes:
1. See 1st Governor.
2. See How many wives?.
3. See Research Project (Sherborne,Dorset).
1b. Thomas Gardner and Margaret Friar married in Sherborne, Dorset, England in April of 1617 according to local records.1 Then, the first three sons were born with the same names as the Cape Ann family.2 After that, there is silence on the part of history. But, we have identified Margaret's parents. This and other research results suggest to us the origins of this couple.3

Footnotes:
1. See Marriage of Thomas and Margaret.
2. See Margaret, anew.
3. See WikiTree.